FIRSt ELECTRIC CAR PRVI ELEKTRIČNI AUTOMOBIL

Born in Maffersdorf, Austria in 1875, Ferdinand Porsche went to Vienna in 1893 to apprentice at an electrical engineering firm. He quickly rose in the ranks, becoming head of the company’s testing department. While serving in this position, he met Ludwig Lohner, head of the carriage-manufacturing company Jacob Lohner. During his travels in the United States, Lohner had become convinced that the age of the horse-and-buggy was ending, and he wanted to start producing electric and gas powered vehicles. He thought electric cars would be particularly marketable, as people sought to avoid excessive noise and exhaust fumes. Lohner commissioned Porsche to come up with an electric drivetrain, as the system that connects a vehicle’s transmission to the drive axels is known. The result, which debuted on the streets of Vienna on June 26, 1898, was the P1.

Constructed by Porsche himself, it had a rear-mounted “octagonal electric motor” that was powered by electric “Tudor” batteries. While the motor itself weighed a relatively modest 287 pounds, the batteries alone weighed some 1,100 pounds; the total weight of the vehicle was 2,997 pounds. Controlled by a 12-speed system, the P1 could reach a top speed of 34 km per hour; a single charge would carry it up to 49 miles. In another innovative touch, the vehicle was also an early convertible of sorts: It could be configured in an open-chassis or coupe style, depending on the season.

In September 1899, Ferdinand Porsche took the P1 to an international motor vehicle exhibition in Berlin, where it represented one of 19 electric vehicle manufacturers among some 120 exhibitors. He drove it himself in a 24-mile road race of electric cars, during which it had to carry four passengers, including the driver. The challenging course included gradients, an 8.6-km high-speed section and a 7.8-km efficiency test. Porsche and the P1 won the race easily, beating the next-best finisher by 18 minutes. Meanwhile, technical difficulties kept more than half of the participants from reaching the finish line, while others were not assessed due to their failure to meet the minimum speed requirement. In addition to the speed race, the P1 also won the award for efficiency, recording the lowest energy consumption in urban traffic. Shortly after the Berlin exhibition, Porsche became the chief designer for Jacob Lohner. In 1900, at the Paris Exposition Universelle, he dazzled international automobile enthusiasts with the Lohner-Porsche, a sportscar fitted with four electric wheel-hub motors that was showcased as the first all-wheel drive passenger vehicle in the world. Porsche went on to design cars for Austro-Daimler, Daimler-Benz and Steyr before forming his own namesake automobile company in 1931. The Type 356, the first sportscar to bear the Porsche name, was released in 1948.

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Ferdinand Porsche, rođen u Maffersdorfu u Austriji 1875. godine, otišao je u Beč 1893. godine kao šegrt u elektrotehničku firmu. Brzo se popeo u redove, postavši šef odjela za testiranje kompanije. Dok je služio na ovom položaju, upoznao je Ludwiga Lohnera, šefa kompanije za proizvodnju kočija Jacob Lohner. Tokom svojih putovanja po Sjedinjenim Državama, Lohner se uvjerio da doba konja i kolica prestaje i želio je započeti proizvodnju vozila na električni i plinski pogon. Smatrao je da će se električni automobili posebno prodati, jer su ljudi nastojali izbjeći pretjeranu buku i izduvne plinove. Lohner je naručio Porscheu da osmisli električni pogonski sklop, jer je poznat sistem koji povezuje mjenjač vozila s pogonskim osovinama. Rezultat, koji je na ulicama Beča debitirao 26. juna 1898, bio je P1.

Konstruiran od strane samog Porschea, imao je straga montirani "osmerokutni električni motor" koji se napajao električnim "Tudor" baterijama. Dok je sam motor težio relativno skromnih 287 kilograma, samo baterije bile su teške oko 1.100 kilograma; ukupna težina vozila bila je 2.997 kilograma. Upravljan sistemom od 12 brzina, P1 je mogao postići maksimalnu brzinu od 34 km na sat; jedno punjenje nosilo bi ga do 49 milja. U još jednom inovativnom dodiru, vozilo je takođe bilo rano kabriolet: moglo se konfigurirati u otvorenom podvozju ili kupeu, ovisno o sezoni.


U septembru 1899. Ferdinand Porsche je P1 odveo na međunarodnu izložbu motornih vozila u Berlin, gdje je predstavljao jednog od 19 proizvođača električnih vozila među oko 120 izlagača. Vozio ga je sam u cestovnoj utrci električnih automobila od 24 kilometra, tokom koje je morao prevoziti četiri putnika, uključujući vozača. Izazovna staza uključivala je nagibe, dionicu velike brzine od 8,6 km i test efikasnosti od 7,8 km. Porsche i P1 lako su pobijedili u trci, pobijedivši sljedećeg najboljeg igrača za 18 minuta. U međuvremenu, tehničke poteškoće spriječile su više od polovine sudionika da stignu do cilja, dok ostale nisu procijenjene zbog neuspjeha u ispunjavanju minimalnih zahtjeva za brzinom. Pored brze trke, P1 je osvojio i nagradu za efikasnost, bilježeći najmanju potrošnju energije u gradskom prometu. Ubrzo nakon berlinske izložbe, Porsche je postao glavni dizajner Jacoba Lohnera. 1900. godine, na pariškom izložbenom svemiru, zanosio je međunarodne automobilske entuzijaste Lohner-Porscheom, sportskim automobilom opremljenim sa četiri električna motora sa glavčinom kotača koji je predstavljen kao prvo putničko vozilo sa pogonom na sve točkove na svijetu. Porsche je nastavio dizajnirati automobile za Austro-Daimler, Daimler-Benz i Steyr prije nego što je 1931. osnovao vlastitu istoimenu automobilsku kompaniju. Type 356, prvi sportski automobil koji je nosio ime Porsche, objavljen je 1948. godine.

 

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